Education Commission of India

Education Commissions of India

CHARTER ACT(1813)

  • The first step towards education
  • To spread scientific knowledge in India (British India).
  • Christian missionaries were allowed
  • In 1817, Hindu college was established in Calcutta which later become presidency college in 1835, and presidency university in 2010

ELPHINESTONE REPORT (1823)

  • It recommended appointment of district examiner , examination officers,  school supervisors.
  • Training of teachers
  • Elphinestone Institution set up in 1834 in Bombay

MACAULAY'S MINUTES (1835)

  • Suggested diffusion of English education in country.
  • Lord Macaulay wanted to build an education system that was secular and scientific, free of age-old prejudice and at par with the western world.
  • Focused upon English education instead of traditional Indian learning.
  • He believed in education a few upper and middle class students
  • Lord William Benthic ( 1835), decided to introduce English Medium of Instruction.

WOOD DISPATCH (1854)

  • First policy measures regarding higher education.
  • It recommended setting up of 3 universities namely at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
  • Focused on women education

HUNTER COMMISSION (1882-83)

  • It emphasized the segregation of primary education and higher education
  • It proposed that universities would have to manage the affiliated colleges.
  • Control distirct trasnsfer

SIMLA EDUCATION CONFERENCE (1901)

  • Chairmanship of Lord Curzon
  • This was the first conference on an Indian basis.
  • The Government should fully control all stages of education
  • The Government should spend more money on education
  • Government schools should be such that they could serve as models to private schools.

UNIVERSITIES COMMISSION (1902)

  • Lord Curzon was the first person to appoint.
  • The Indian university Act of 1904 passed.
  • Suggest appointing own professor, syndicate, and senate.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION (1905)

  • Set up by Swadeshi nationalist leaders.
  • Jadavpur University after Independence, Shanti Niketan by Shri Rabindranath Tagor, Dawn society by Satish Mukherjee

RESOLUTION ON EDUCATIONS POLICY (1913)

  • Establish more university
  • Teaching activities of universities should be encouraged
  • SNDT(1916), PATNA UNIVERSITY (1917), HYDERABAD UNIVERSITY (1918)

SADDLER COMMISSION (1917)

  • Also, know as Calcutta University Commission
  • It was a precursor to the 10+2+3 system
  • Suggest the setting up of the Central Advisory Board Of Education (CABE)

HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)

  • The committee focused on improving the quality & standard of university-level education.
  • It again recommended the setting up of CABE

SAPRU COMMITTEE (1934)

  • Enquire into the causes of unemployment in UP
  • The system of education commonly prevalent prepated pupils only for examination and degrees and not for any avocation on life

ABBOT WOOD REPORT (1937)

  • It proposed the English should be the medium of instruction at university level.
  • Vocational training

WARDHA SCHEME OF EDUCATION (1937)

  • Chairmanship of Dr. Zakir Husain.
  • It is also known as Nai Talim, Basic education, Buniyadi talim or Basic Shiksha.
  • This scheme is an outcome of the philosophy of Gandhi jee.
  • Emphasized free, compulsory, and universal education for age groups of 7 to 14 years; and also that education should be imparted in one’s mother language

SARGENT REPORT (1944)

  • It is also called the scheme of post war educational development in India.
  • Remommended seting up of University Scheme Of Grant Commission

SARKAR COMMITTEE

  • Chairpersion Nalini Ranjan Sarkar with 22 member
  • For the creation of higher Technical Institutes
  • First IIT was founded in Khagarpur (1950)
  • IIT act was passed (1956)

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49)

  • It is also known as Radhakrishnan Commission.
  • Chairmanship of Dr. S.R. Krishnan.
  • Appointed to report on the status of Indian University Education and Prospose Improvements and extensions.
  • Set up of UGC in 1956
  • Some Important Remommendations are:-
    • 12 years of pre-university education
    • Intermediate college for class IX, X, XI, XII
    • English as a medium in higher education

MUDALIAR COMMISSION (1952-53)

  • Chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar ( VC of Madras University).
  • Popular as the secondary education commission.
  • Recommendations:-
    • 10+2+3 pattern was established
    • Setting up of Multipurpose Schools & vocational training Institutes
    • National Education Policy (1986)

COMMITTEE ON EMOTIONAL INTEGRATION (1961)

  • Chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand .
  • To study the role of educational programs for youth.

KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-1966)

  • Daulat Singh Kothari, Scientist & educationalist, chairman of the Kothari Commission.
  • Kothari commission, Popularly known as Indian Education Commission.
  • It recommended the 6% of national income should be spent on education.
  • 10+2+3 pattern was established.

NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1968)

  • The first NPE was promogulated in 1968 by the Govt. of prime minister Indira Gandhi
  • It was a policy to promote education among India’s people.
  • Recommendations of this committee were :-
    • Compulsory education to children in the 6-14 years age group as proposed in the Indian Constitution.
    • Recommended Regional languages must be encouraged for being used in secondary schools.
    • It was of the opinion that English has to be the medium of instruction in schools and it considered Hindi as the national language.

NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986)

  • It had provision of fellowhip for the poor.
  • Setting up the Indira Gandhi National Open University at Delhi.

NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1992)

  • Chairmanship of Acharya Ramamurti
  • To reassess the impact of the provision of National Policy On Education
  • A central advisory board of education was set up.
  • Developing moral values among students.

GNANAM COMMITTEE (1993)

  • It recommended flexibility and autonomy for ensuring academic excellence
  • Asked for restricting the unchecked growth of deemed universities.

SAM PITRODA COMMITTEE(2007)

  • It is also known as National Knowledge Commission(NKC).
  • Recommended increasing the number of universities to 1500 by 2015.

YASHPAL COMMITTEE (2009)

  • The chairman of the committee was Yash Pal
  • For examining reforms to be brought about in higher education in India.
  • In its report, the Yashpal committee laid emphasis on the idea of a university and advocated a number of major structural changes.
  • Deemed university status should be abandoned
  • It was also recommended that all the deserving deemed universities should be either converted to full-fledged universities or would have to be scrapped.

SHARAMA COMMITTEE

  • It deliberated upon the development of science and technology education in India.
  • Sharma Committee suggested the establishment of the Indian Institute of Science, Education, and Research (IISER)

DR. ANIL KAKODKAR COMMITTEE

  • It was constituted to recommend strategies to imporve technical education in the country.
  • It recommended 2% budget in every institution to be earmarked for research.

K.B PAWAR COMMITTEE

  • Constituted by the UGC, the committee recommended four models of Public-Private -Partnership (PPP) in higher education
  • KB Pawar Committee proposed 4 different models of PPP models in higher education:-
    • Basic Infrastructure Model
    • Outsourcing Model,
    • Equity Model,
    • Reserve Outsourcing Model

NEW EDUCATION POLICY (2019)

  • Chairperson – K. Kasturirangan, Former Chairman, ISRO, Bengaluru.
  • School Education
    • Early childhood education: education for all children between 3-6 years by 2025
    • Curriculum and pedagogy: learning has been developed based on a 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 design.
    • Universal access: The Policy aims to achieve 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio for all school education by 2030 through various measures.
  • Higher Education
    • New architecture: The current 800 universities and 40,000 colleges will be consolidated into about 15,000 excellent institutions.
    • Governance: Each higher education institution will be governed by an Independent Board.
  • Teacher Education
    • Teacher preparation programs will be rigorous
    • Substandard and dysfunctional teacher education institutes will be shut down.
  • Adult Education
    • This Policy aims to achieve 100% youth and adult literacy by 2030.
  • Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog
    • Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog or National Education Commission will be formed, headed by the Prime Minister – this will be the custodian of the vision of education in India.

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