- The first step towards education
- To spread scientific knowledge in India (British India).
- Christian missionaries were allowed
- In 1817, Hindu college was established in Calcutta which later become presidency college in 1835, and presidency university in 2010
ELPHINESTONE REPORT (1823)
- It recommended appointment of district examiner , examination officers, school supervisors.
- Training of teachers
- Elphinestone Institution set up in 1834 in Bombay
MACAULAY'S MINUTES (1835)
- Suggested diffusion of English education in country.
- Lord Macaulay wanted to build an education system that was secular and scientific, free of age-old prejudice and at par with the western world.
- Focused upon English education instead of traditional Indian learning.
- He believed in education a few upper and middle class students
- Lord William Benthic ( 1835), decided to introduce English Medium of Instruction.
WOOD DISPATCH (1854)
- First policy measures regarding higher education.
- It recommended setting up of 3 universities namely at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
- Focused on women education
HUNTER COMMISSION (1882-83)
- It emphasized the segregation of primary education and higher education
- It proposed that universities would have to manage the affiliated colleges.
- Control distirct trasnsfer
SIMLA EDUCATION CONFERENCE (1901)
- Chairmanship of Lord Curzon
- This was the first conference on an Indian basis.
- The Government should fully control all stages of education
- The Government should spend more money on education
- Government schools should be such that they could serve as models to private schools.
UNIVERSITIES COMMISSION (1902)
- Lord Curzon was the first person to appoint.
- The Indian university Act of 1904 passed.
- Suggest appointing own professor, syndicate, and senate.
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION (1905)
- Set up by Swadeshi nationalist leaders.
- Jadavpur University after Independence, Shanti Niketan by Shri Rabindranath Tagor, Dawn society by Satish Mukherjee
RESOLUTION ON EDUCATIONS POLICY (1913)
- Establish more university
- Teaching activities of universities should be encouraged
- SNDT(1916), PATNA UNIVERSITY (1917), HYDERABAD UNIVERSITY (1918)
SADDLER COMMISSION (1917)
- Also, know as Calcutta University Commission
- It was a precursor to the 10+2+3 system
- Suggest the setting up of the Central Advisory Board Of Education (CABE)
HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)
- The committee focused on improving the quality & standard of university-level education.
- It again recommended the setting up of CABE
SAPRU COMMITTEE (1934)
- Enquire into the causes of unemployment in UP
- The system of education commonly prevalent prepated pupils only for examination and degrees and not for any avocation on life
ABBOT WOOD REPORT (1937)
- It proposed the English should be the medium of instruction at university level.
- Vocational training
WARDHA SCHEME OF EDUCATION (1937)
- Chairmanship of Dr. Zakir Husain.
- It is also known as Nai Talim, Basic education, Buniyadi talim or Basic Shiksha.
- This scheme is an outcome of the philosophy of Gandhi jee.
- Emphasized free, compulsory, and universal education for age groups of 7 to 14 years; and also that education should be imparted in one’s mother language
SARGENT REPORT (1944)
- It is also called the scheme of post war educational development in India.
- Remommended seting up of University Scheme Of Grant Commission
- Chairpersion Nalini Ranjan Sarkar with 22 member
- For the creation of higher Technical Institutes
- First IIT was founded in Khagarpur (1950)
- IIT act was passed (1956)
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49)
- It is also known as Radhakrishnan Commission.
- Chairmanship of Dr. S.R. Krishnan.
- Appointed to report on the status of Indian University Education and Prospose Improvements and extensions.
- Set up of UGC in 1956
- Some Important Remommendations are:-
- 12 years of pre-university education
- Intermediate college for class IX, X, XI, XII
- English as a medium in higher education
MUDALIAR COMMISSION (1952-53)
- Chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar ( VC of Madras University).
- Popular as the secondary education commission.
- 10+2+3 pattern was established
- Setting up of Multipurpose Schools & vocational training Institutes
- National Education Policy (1986)
COMMITTEE ON EMOTIONAL INTEGRATION (1961)
- Chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand .
- To study the role of educational programs for youth.
KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-1966)
- Daulat Singh Kothari, Scientist & educationalist, chairman of the Kothari Commission.
- Kothari commission, Popularly known as Indian Education Commission.
- It recommended the 6% of national income should be spent on education.
- 10+2+3 pattern was established.
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1968)
- The first NPE was promogulated in 1968 by the Govt. of prime minister Indira Gandhi
- It was a policy to promote education among India’s people.
- Recommendations of this committee were :-
- Compulsory education to children in the 6-14 years age group as proposed in the Indian Constitution.
- Recommended Regional languages must be encouraged for being used in secondary schools.
- It was of the opinion that English has to be the medium of instruction in schools and it considered Hindi as the national language.
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986)
- It had provision of fellowhip for the poor.
- Setting up the Indira Gandhi National Open University at Delhi.
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1992)
- Chairmanship of Acharya Ramamurti
- To reassess the impact of the provision of National Policy On Education
- A central advisory board of education was set up.
- Developing moral values among students.
GNANAM COMMITTEE (1993)
- It recommended flexibility and autonomy for ensuring academic excellence
- Asked for restricting the unchecked growth of deemed universities.
SAM PITRODA COMMITTEE(2007)
- It is also known as National Knowledge Commission(NKC).
- Recommended increasing the number of universities to 1500 by 2015.
YASHPAL COMMITTEE (2009)
- The chairman of the committee was Yash Pal
- For examining reforms to be brought about in higher education in India.
- In its report, the Yashpal committee laid emphasis on the idea of a university and advocated a number of major structural changes.
- Deemed university status should be abandoned
- It was also recommended that all the deserving deemed universities should be either converted to full-fledged universities or would have to be scrapped.
- It deliberated upon the development of science and technology education in India.
- Sharma Committee suggested the establishment of the Indian Institute of Science, Education, and Research (IISER)
DR. ANIL KAKODKAR COMMITTEE
- It was constituted to recommend strategies to imporve technical education in the country.
- It recommended 2% budget in every institution to be earmarked for research.
K.B PAWAR COMMITTEE
- Constituted by the UGC, the committee recommended four models of Public-Private -Partnership (PPP) in higher education
- KB Pawar Committee proposed 4 different models of PPP models in higher education:-
- Basic Infrastructure Model
- Outsourcing Model,
- Equity Model,
- Reserve Outsourcing Model
NEW EDUCATION POLICY (2019)
- Chairperson – K. Kasturirangan, Former Chairman, ISRO, Bengaluru.
- School Education
- Early childhood education: education for all children between 3-6 years by 2025
- Curriculum and pedagogy: learning has been developed based on a 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 design.
- Universal access: The Policy aims to achieve 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio for all school education by 2030 through various measures.
- Higher Education
- New architecture: The current 800 universities and 40,000 colleges will be consolidated into about 15,000 excellent institutions.
- Governance: Each higher education institution will be governed by an Independent Board.
- Teacher Education
- Teacher preparation programs will be rigorous
- Substandard and dysfunctional teacher education institutes will be shut down.
- Adult Education
- This Policy aims to achieve 100% youth and adult literacy by 2030.
- Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog
- Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog or National Education Commission will be formed, headed by the Prime Minister – this will be the custodian of the vision of education in India.