pyq of communication

15 Communication Previous Year Questions(PYQ) with explanation [Solved]

In this post, we will look at the important PYQ of the previous year of the communication subject of NTA UGC NET Paper 1.
We will not only answer the communication PYQ (Previous Year Questions) but also know its “HOW” and “WHY” and will also explain the correct answer with an explanation.

Communication begins usually with

  • Confused ideas
  • Semantic noise
  • Apprehension
  • ✓ Pictures in the mind


Beginning of communication:

• Communication occurs when a sender expresses an emotion or a feeling, creates an idea, or senses the need to communicate.

• The communication process is triggered when the sender makes a conscious or unconscious decision to share the message with

another person—the receiver.

• The communication process refers to a series of actions or steps taken in order to successfully communicate. It involves several

components such as the sender of the communication, the actual message being sent, the encoding of the message, the receiver,

and the decoding of the message.

• Encoding refers to the process of taking an idea or mental image, associating that image with words, and then speaking those

words in order to convey a message.

• So, if I want to explain to my aunt the directions to my new apartment, I would picture in my mind the landscape, streets, and

buildings, and then I would select the best words that describe the route so my aunt could find me.

• The message can also be intentional or unintentional.

• When the message is intentional, this means that we have an image in our mind that we wish to communicate to an audience or a

person in a conversation, and we can successfully convey the image from our mind to others’ minds with relative accuracy.

• An unintentional message is sent when the message that we wish to convey is not the same as the message the other person



Communication is a two-way process, in which the sender encodes the message that is interpreted or decoded by the receiver

When the sender encodes the message, s/he has an idea or mental image that s/he associates with words and then speaks.

Hence, communication begins usually with pictures in the mind.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  • A-1, B – III, C-III, D-IV
  • A-II, B – III, C-IV, D-
  • ✓ A – III, B – IV, C-1,D – |
  • A-IV, B-I, C-II, D-III



Additional Information

• Interpersonal communication is the exchange of ideas between two or more people and where both participants, can have an

effect on one another. It is dynamic, two-way flow of information, communication is sending and receiving. It often includes face to

face exchange of information, in a form of voice, facial expressions, body language and gestures.

For example communication between a son and a father, an employer and an employee, two sisters, a teacher and a

student and so on.

• Intra-personal communication is communication with oneself which may include self-talk, acts of imagination and

visualization and even recall and memory. It also includes thoughts, assessments, contemplation’s, and feelings that are

associated with one’s inner communication. That is why in the option above we have chosen intrapersonal communication in

one to none mode of communication.

• Mass communication is the process by which a person, group pf person or organization creates a message and transmits it

through some type of medium to a large, anonymous, heterogeneous audience. The audience of mass communication is

mostly made up of different cultures, behaviour, and belief systems. It is the public transfer of messages through media or

technology-driven channels to a large number of recipients/audience. That is why we have chosen one to many mode of

communication for mass communication.

For example commercial advertising, public relations, journalism and political campaigning.

• Network (transactional communication- It refers to a mode of communication in which interactions in two directions areconsidered together.

For example: from one person to another and back, or from one subsystem to another and back. Communication is integrated into our social entities.

The correct answer is A-III, B-IV, C-I, D-II.

It is preferable to start the classroom communication with —

  • Listening commands
  • ✓ Anecdotes
  • Unrelated questions
  • Casual comments


Communicating with Students

Communication skills are most vital for interactions with students, because the act of teaching itself requires them. In your role, you are responsible for comprehending and breaking down complex information, conveying this information clearly to your students (both verbally and in written resources), presenting in a manner that sustains their attention, and listening to and resolving their questions or problems.


It is preferable to start the classroom communication with Anecdotes.

1. Generally, the anecdote will relate to the subject matter that the group of people is discussing.

2. An anecdote is a brief, revealing account of an individual person or an incident: “a story with a point,” such as to communicate an abstract idea about a person, place, or thing through the concrete details of a short narrative or to characterize by delineating a specific quirk or trait.

3. Anecdotes make conversations or dialogue more personal and interesting.

4. Usually, they are employed in a classroom in a way that will make the students and/or other characters laugh or think more deeply about a topic.

Confusion Points

Listening commands, Unrelated questions, and Casual passing comments on students may discourage the morale of students and may not serve the purpose of effective classroom communication.

Dynamics of efficient communication in a classroom includes

A. Teacher centric listening

B. Promotion of one-way action

C. Ignoring students’ inhibitions

D. Balancing interactive and static elements

E. Brainstorming procedure

F. Understanding learners’ sociometry

Choose the correct answer from the options given below

Only A, C and D

Only B, D and F

Only A, C and F

Only D, E and F


Classroom dynamics:

• Classroom dynamics include student behavior, emotions, and imagination.

• It also includes teacher’s ways of presenting academic materials and student interactions. It helps in creating a positive

classroom culture.

• Classroom dynamics involves the interaction between students and teachers in a classroom community.

• The purpose of studying classroom dynamics is to learn how to set up a positive classroom atmosphere where students feel

comfortable learning and communicating with other students and with the teacher.


Dynamics of efficient communication in a classroom include:

1. For effective classroom communication, it is critical to have balanced interactive and static elements in order to avoid discussion on topics that are out of context and also ensuring adequate participation of students in group discussion.

2. Brainstorming is a large or small group activity that encourages students to focus on a topic and contribute to the free flow of ideas.

3. Sociometry is a quantitative method for measuring social relationships. It was developed by psychotherapist Jacob L. Moreno and Helen Hall Jennings in their studies of the relationship between social structures and psychological well-being and used during Remedial Teaching.

Confusion Points

Teacher centric listening, Promotion of one-way action, Ignoring students’ inhibitions are the actions highly discouraged in effective classroom communication. These actions do not encourage the overall development of students’ personality.

What of the following is considered as an effective form of verbal communication?

  • ✓ Story-telling
  • Sloganeering
  • Use of high pitch of voice
  • Monologues



• The term communication is derived from a Latin verb ‘communicare’ which means ‘to share

• Communication is the passing of information or sharing ideas from one person to another

• Communication constitutes of three things, encoding-transfer-decoding

Sender encodes the message, the channel transfer it to the receiver and the receiver decode the message.

• Communication is two types based on the communication channel.

o Verbal communication

o Non-verbal communication

Verbal communication:

• Here the message is transmitted through words

• The word can be in oral or written form

• It makes the communication short and simple

• Generally, Verbal Communication takes place in real-time.

• The offline method of teaching is a good example of verbal communication

• There are two types of verbal communication

o Oral communication

o Written communication



It is sharing and interpreting experiences.

It can be used as a method to teach ethics, values and cultural norms, and differences.

Learning is most effective when it takes place in social environments that provide authentic social cues about how knowledge is to be applied.


The employment or invention of slogans, in a specific context.

Use of high pitch of voice

Pitch means speaking in a high, low, or natural voice.


It involves one character speaking to another.

Therefore, storytelling is considered to be an effective form of verbal communication.

Given below are two statements – one is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R).

Assertion (A): Skills of oration coupled with wit and humour make classroom communication compelling

Reason (R): Rhetorical interventions do not make classroom communication purposeful

In the light of the above two statements choose the correct option

  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)
  • (A) is true but (R) is false
  • (A) is false but (R) is true


Oration and humor in classroom communication:

• The core purpose of communication is to elicit a change in perceptions, understanding, or behavior in the receiver; this is particularly true of communication with the students in the classroom.

• The Ancient Greeks developed the art of oratory over 2000 years ago. In classical Greece and Rome, the main component was rhetoric (that is, composition and delivery of speeches), and was an important skill in public and private life. Good orators are able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them.

• Humor, as we notice, has immense importance in communication. It brings teacher-student together, breaks the ice and barriers between people, and enlivens the atmosphere. It encourages us to think more and get creative.

• A good, clean joke can even enhance creativity and produce fresh, vibrant ideas.

• Anything presented in a humorous manner seems more interesting and inviting.

Rhetorical intervention:

• Rhetoric refers to the study and use of written, spoken, and visual language.

• Rhetoric began 2500 years ago as the study of the forms of communication and argument essential to public, political, and legal life in Ancient Greece.

• Rhetorical Communication : Rhetorica: the communicator gives thought to the intended message and stimulates the receiver in a manner designed to achieve a specific result. Rhetorical communication is simply a way to win over an audience.

• It investigates how language is used to organize and maintain social groups, construct meanings and identities, coordinate behavior, mediate power, produce change, and create knowledge.

Important Point

• The oration is an oral speech given by someone in front of an audience.

• No wonder, then, that Communication Skills (oration) are often expected to include a good sense of humor within them. Kids, too, are encouraged to read a lot of varied writings of famous authors to get inspired by their writing styles, including their expert use of humor.

• Humor can actually work like therapy, in more ways than we can even imagine – and since it is our duty and responsibility, as adults, to help kids learn their best, introducing them to the wonders of a healthy Sense of Humor in Communication can be a very wise step towards helping kids lead a happy, laughter-filled life.

• Rhetoric intervention in communication does not involve feedback. So it is not good for interpersonal communication, instead, it could be better for public speaking. At the same time, it could be used in the classroom with a purpose to generate knowledge.

Hence, statement I is correct but statement Il is false. So, option (3) is correct.

The key to effective listening by students in a classroom is

  • Sympathy towards the teacher
  • Interest in informal education
  • ✓ Empathetic learning
  • Desire to memorize


Listening in the classroom:

• There are two types of listening: active and passive.

• Active listening, loosely defined, is paying attention to a speaker and listening to understand, not to respond. It also includes a complete focus on the speaker with minimal distractions out of respect and an intent to learn.

• In school, one example of active listening would be a student waiting their turn and considering what their peers have to say before stating their opinion in a classroom discussion.

• Passive listening, however, is like listening while multitasking.

• A passive listener might pay attention to a speaker with the sole intent to respond or place some of their attention on another task.

Students who text during class, interrupt other classmates to voice their opinion, or do homework during lecture or story time may be passive listeners.


Importance of active learning:

• The importance of active listening also branches into social-emotional development.

• Active listening promotes mindful thinking, which can reduce anxiety and depression in students.

• It can also help students build relationships because as they engage themselves in conversation, their peers are more likely to view them as open and interested.

• And finally, practicing active listening can promote empathy—a skill that can enrich a student’s life both in and outside of the classroom

Important Point

On average, people listen at about 25% of their potential. And in the classroom, teachers often understand that listening is an important skill to have but rarely teach it. Active listening is easiest when there are fewer distractions. Active listening is a particular communication technique that requires the listener to provide feedback on what he or she hears to the speaker, by way of restating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words. Active learning promotes empathy in the students which help them to enrich their life in and outside the classroom.

Hence, option (3) is correct

Identify the correct sequence of phases in communication development:

  • A. Acta Diurna
  • B. Cave paintings
  • C. Wooden blocks for printing
  • D. Development of languages
  • E. Metal printing

Choose the correct answer from the option given below:

  • A, B, D, C, E
  • ✓ B, D, C, A, E
  • C, D, E, A, B
  • D, E, A, B, C


The chronological sequence in the development of the communication system are as follows:


The theories suggest that language first evolved around 50,000–150,000 years ago, which is around the time when modern Homo sapiens evolved.

• Cave art or paintings were the earliest forms of communication dating back to the ice age; studies suggest language first evolved around 50000-150000 years ago, which is around the time when modern homo sapiens evolved and the oldest scriptures of surviving languages like Hebrew and Tamil date back to 10th century BCE.

• Development of languages- Communication first started in 3500 BC when the Phoenicians developed an alphabet, but communication was developed very slowly. The civilization of Phoenicia. Phoenicia became one of the most widely used writing systems that spread all over the Mediterranean where many cultures used it.

• Wooden block printings were first done on cloth in china around 220 AD. The way that blocks printing works is very simple.

Carvers (at the time, they were known as printers) would engrave the text or image on a block of wood in a raised form so that the part that they wanted to be black when they printed it was sticking out. They would then apply ink to the raised letters and stamp it on paper.

• People were forced to pursue this invention when in 593 c.e Sui Emperor Wen-ti ordered the printing of Buddhist texts and images.

• A new block had to be carved for each page, but the good part was that they were reusable. There were many important texts that were made using the woodblock printing, including the Diamond Sutra, important Buddhist text that was made in 868 during the T’ang Dynasty.

• Acta Diurna was the first newspaper published in Rome around 59 BC. The origin of the Acta is attributed to Julius Caesar, who first ordered the keeping and publishing of the acts of the people by public officers. The Acta were drawn up from day to day and exposed in a public place on a whitened board called an Album. After remaining there for a reasonable time they were taken down and preserved with other public documents so that they might be available for purposes of research.

• Metal printing or 3D printing began in 1981 in Japan.

A good classroom talk should help develop

  • Jargonised language
  • Macro criticism
  • ✓ Summary sentences
  • Technology orientation


Classroom Talk:

1. A good classroom talk is essential.

2. It allows students to formulate their thoughts, communicate their ideas and reflect upon their learning.

3. It also helps teachers to understand and clarify student’s thinking.

4. Increasing the focus on classroom talk means more opportunities for pupils to use discussion and talk to support their learning.

5. Encouraging pupils to work in groups, when supported by teachers, enhances the quality of discussions and ensures all children play an active part.

6. For group discussion to be effective, make sure that your classroom has explicit rules for discussion time.


Summarising sentences:

1. Summarising is an important skill in writing.

2. It enables you to extract the most important points from a text and rewrite them in your own words, in a shortened form.

3. Such skills are invaluable when you are note taking and researching for an essay.

4. Being able to write a good summary also demonstrates that you have fully understood the text you are reading.

Therefore, a good classroom talk should help develop summary sentences.

Confusion Points

1. Jargonised Knowledge:

• Jargon is the term for a specialized or technical language that is only understood by those who are members of a group or who perform a specific trade.

. For example, the legal profession has many terms that are considered jargon, or terms that only lawyers and judges use frequently

2. Macro criticism: Criticising on any issues are unacceptable. A good classroom talk should avoid the scope of criticism.

3. Technology orientation: The Technological Orientation scale measures the tendency or habit of seeking to increase one’s repertoire of skills and uses of technology-based resources and programs; toward valuing the Internet and other technological means of accessing credible sources of information or researching a problem. However, it has no correlation with good classroom talk.

Immediacy of cues in communication is dependent upon one’s own

  • Economic preferences
  • ✓ Cultural background
  • Physical fitness
  • Social expectations


Immediacy in communication:

• Immediacy in communication is the way we signal closeness, willingness to communicate, and positive feelings to another person.

• According to Peter Anderson, ‘immediacy behaviours are actions that simultaneously communicate warmth, involvement, psychological closeness, availability for communication, and positive affect.’

• Immediacy consists of both verbal and nonverbal behaviours.

• We exhibit verbal immediacy behaviours when we signal warmth and a willingness to connect to the receiver of the message and when we use language that expresses immediacy.

. Cultural differences make a few verbal communications inappropriate.

• Examples of verbal immediacy behaviors include the use of plural pronouns, the use of the informal manner of address, displaying openness, and the use of compliments.

• Examples of nonverbal immediacy cues include touch, distance, eye contact, body language, and vocal tone.

Immediacy Cues:

• Cues are internal or external events that have a signalling significance to an organism which subsequently affects learning and behavior. The cue may be verbal or nonverbal.

• Nodding head, smiling, eye contact, slower body movement, leaning forward, the natural pitch of voice, etc. are some of the immediacies of cues


• Social psychologist Albert Mehrabian has been credited with defining the concept of immediacy in terms of his “principle of immediacy,” which states “people are drawn toward persons and things they like, evaluate highly and prefer; and they avoid or move away from things they dislike, evaluate negatively, or do not prefer”.

• Immediacy relates to approach and avoidance behaviours and can be thought of as the perceived distance between people.

Since, immediacy is related to the behavior of a person before others belonging to different caste, creed, and race. So, it will be related to the cultural background of a person.

Hence, option (2) is correct.

Given below are two statements: One is labeled as Assertion (A) and the other is labeled as Reason (R):

Assertion (A): Verbal Communication takes place in real-time.

Reason (R): Written communication is synchronous in character as it appears at different intervals.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  • Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
  • Both (A) and (R) are true bur (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
  • (A) is true but (R) is false
  • (A) is false but (R) is true



• The term communication is derived from a Latin verb ‘communicare’ which means ‘to share

• Communication is the passing of information or sharing ideas from one person to another

• Communication constitutes of three things, encoding-transfer-decoding

• Sender encodes the message, the channel transfer it to the receiver and the receiver decode the message.

• Communication is two types based on the communication channel.

o Verbal communication

o Non-verbal communication


1. Verbal communication:

. Here the message is transmitted through words

• The word can be in oral or written form

• It makes the communication short and simple

• Generally, Verbal Communication takes place in real-time.

• The offline method of teaching is a good example of verbal communication

• There are two types of verbal communication

o Oral communication

o Written communication

2. Written communication:

• It is a written form of words and sentences.

• Written communication is asynchronous in character as it appears at different intervals.

• The receiver can receive the message of the sender at any time

1. Synchronous: Synchronous communication is communication that takes place in real-time, such as a conversation with a friend.

2. Asynchronous: Asynchronous communication is communication that is not immediate and occurs over long periods of time, such as letters, email, or even text messages.

Therefore, (A) is true but (R) is false.

When verbal and non-verbal messages are contradictory, it is said that most people believe in

  • indeterminate messages
  • verbal messages
  • ✓ non-verbal messages
  • aggressive messages


Verbal Communication

Verbal Communication Speech is used for a variety of purposes – to describe feelings, to communicate ideas, to reason, and to argue.

Some people use speech as a play. Speech does not imply a listener; people talk even to themselves. Speech is what ties people into a society, into a community. We speak with many individuals every day. Without speech, we are handicapped in our ability to inform, comment, question, instruct, and persuade others.

Non-verbal communication

Without using words, we communicate with a look, an expression, a gesture, or a grunt. Appearance, posture, gait, and voice tell us more about people than they may tell us in words. These elements of nonverbal communication are, mostly unconscious and occur at instinctive levels. Yet, we can train ourselves to become conscious of them, and thus we can improve our ability to communicate.

Communication experts say that 94 percent of all communication is non-verbal and only 6 percent is verbal. Yet we spend so much time and effort managing our verb and messages. Not that it does not matter, but the fact is that both our verbal and non-verbal messages need to be congruent. If what we are saying is negated or contradicted by our non-verbal cues, others are more likely to pick up and respond to the non-verbal message than the verbal.

Visualize this scenario: A colleague/client/patient walks into your room. You are in the middle of finishing some writing tasks. You welcome the person in, ask what s/he wants and as the person begins to speak, continue to write the unfinished sentence. The person stops midway, you look up and urge the person to continue saying you are listening. The person will continue hesitatingly, not fully convinced that you are paying attention until you put the writing aside. What happened here? Your verbal and non-verbal messages said different things. Non-verbally you communicated the importance and priority you assigned to your writing while verbally assuring the person of your attention. The person was quick to perceive your preoccupation with your writing.

Non-verbal messages can contradict a verbal message. This is called double-bind communication where the verbal and non-verbal messages are not in sync with each other, leaving the listener confused and bewildered (e.g. welcoming a person and looking at your watch or saying you are not angry in a cold harsh tone).

Possible reactions to this kind of communication could be that the listener as

• picks up the verbal and ignores the rest

• picks up the non-verbal and ignores the verbal ignores the whole message

• comments on the incongruency and seeks clarification

In life situations, however, it is not often that we comment on the contradictions in verbal and non-verbal messages. We pick up the non-verbal (e-g. she is not really listening, she is preoccupied with her writing) but respond to the verbal (I continue my talk when she urges me to, assuring me that she is listening).

Hence, we conclude that when verbal and non-verbal messages are contradictory, it is said that most people believe in non-verbal messages.


Efficacy of written communication depends upon

  • A. Lengthy presentation
  • B. Complex sentence structure
  • C. Editing after writing
  • D. Brevity in sentences
  • E. Use of strong words
  • F. Effective use of words

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

  • A, B and C only
  • B, C and D only
  • ✓ C, D and F only
  • D, E and F only


Communication :

• Communication is the passing of information or sharing of ideas from sender to receiver.

• Latin word ‘communicare’ means ‘to share and another Latin word ‘communis’ means ‘common’.

• So the aim of sharing the idea is to establish a commonness with receivers.

• From the definition of the Oxford Dictionary, communication is the transfer of conveying of meaning.’

• Communication can be classified based on the communication channel, verbal and non-verbal communication

• In verbal communication, a message is transmitted through words

• Non-verbal communication is wordless and unstructured Written communication is a type of verbal communication


Efficacy of written communication:

• The efficacy or working efficiency of written communication depends on three main factors, content, context, and the receiver.

• Five Cs of effective written communication:

o Connection – Good written communication forms a connection between the reader and the writer.

o Clarity – Effective written communication is clear and easy to understand.

Cause – The cause or reason for writing needs to be clear to both the writer and the reader, including any specific actions you need from your audience.

o Conciseness – Good written communication sticks to the point and doesn’t meander around or include lots of extraneous information.

o Correctness – To be effective, written communication should use the correct tone, inoffensive language, and appropriate grammar.

Therefore, the Efficacy of written communication depends upon Editing after writing, Brevity in sentences, and Effective use of words

Confusion Points

 Lengthy presentation: it takes more time and disfavor to read

• Complex sentence structure: it makes the communication more complex and the content ill-defined to the receiver

• Use of strong words: sometimes use of bombastic words become a barrier to a clear understanding of the writing

Radio and TV are more powerful and successful than the newspaper in communicating socially relevant messages because:

  • they are designed for such purposes
  • they are capable of catching the attention of people
  • they present a variety of programmes
  • they can reach even the illiterate masses


Radio and TV are more powerful and successful than the newspaper in communicating socially relevant messages because they can reach even the illiterate masses.


Mass media:

• Communicate with a large number of people

• It is designed to reach the larger part of the society

. For example, TV, radio, newspaper, etc.

• It can be two types, printed media and electronic media.

Printed media:

. Communication is done through printed materials.

• These are found in hard format

• Useful for those who are familiar with the language

• For example, Newspapers, Magazines, Booklets, Brochures, Books, Press releases, Billboards, Handbills, Flyers, Direct Mailers, Newsletters, or periodicals, House magazines

• It is the preferred medium for people who have the time and ability to read.

Electronic media:

• The users need to use an electronic connection to access it.

. This is also called broadcast media.

• Electronic media includes TV, Radio, and new age media

• They can reach even the illiterate masses

• It is a less time consuming and direct method

• Here information can be reached to a wider audience.

Important Point

Thus it is clear that TV and Radio are electronic media and can reach a wider audience insted of their education and social background. But printed media can reach only those people who can read it.

Identify the incorrect statement from the following:

  • ✓ It is not that you cannot communicate
  • Silence communicates
  • Noise in channel affects message reception
  • Message is independent of characteristics of medium


The term ‘Communication’ is derived from the Latin “Communis”, which means – ‘to make common’, ‘to share’ or ‘to transmit’.

Communication is a two-way process in which participants not only exchange ideas and information but also share mutual understanding.

Silence is known as secret communication. It is true that in most cases a sender uses nonverbal cues in interpersonal communication.

Silence can be an effective communication tool but non-verbal obviously.

The communication process is made up of four key components. Those components include encoding, the medium of transmission, decoding, and feedback, along with the sender and the receiver

Elements in the Communication Process

• The first step the sender is faced with involves the encoding process (means translating information into a message in the form of symbols that represent ideas or concepts).

• When encoding a message, the sender has to begin by deciding what he/she wants to transmit. A good way for the sender to improve encoding their message is to mentally visualize the communication from the receiver’s point of view.

• To begin transmitting the message, the sender uses some kind of channel (also called a medium). The channel is the means used to convey the message. The message is independent of the characteristics of a medium.

• While selecting the appropriate channel, senders need to keep in mind that selecting an appropriate channel will greatly assist in the effectiveness of the receiver’s understanding.

• After the appropriate channel is selected, the message enters the decoding stage of the communication process.

• Decoding is conducted by the receiver. The receiver is the individual or individuals to whom the message is directed.

Noise: It is an unpleasant sound that causes disturbances in communication. Noise is a physical barrier to communication.

The communication medium does not affect the meaning or characteristics of a message. The communication channel is only responsible for the transmission of the message. The type and characteristics of the medium depending on the type of message that the sender wants to convert. For example, air is a medium for spoken words, electronic media for typed messages.

Sometimes it is possible that one can not communicate due to some communication gap or cultural differences.

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