Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies, and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
Method of research PYQ [Solved]
Research is defined as careful consideration of a study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie,
“research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon”.
• Action research is a philosophy and methodology of research generally applied in the social sciences. It seeks transformative change through the simultaneous process of taking action and doing research, which is linked together by critical reflection.
• Action Research is either research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving that integrates research, action, and analysis. The research includes building a knowledge base to understand the effectiveness of the action or plan being considered.
• Action research creates knowledge based on inquiries conducted within specific and often practical contexts. As articulated earlier, the purpose of action research is to learn through action that then leads on to personal or professional development.
• Action research is any form of a systematic inquiry conducted by those with a direct, vested interest in the teaching and learning process in a particular setting. Johnson (2012) has described action research as being a true systematic inquiry into one’s own practice.
• Conceptual research is defined as a methodology wherein research is conducted by observing and analyzing already present information on a given topic. Conceptual research doesn’t involve conducting any practical experiments. It is related to abstract concepts or ideas.
• A conceptual framework can guide research by providing a visual representation of theoretical constructs (and variables) of interest. Designing a conceptual model begins with conducting a thorough review of the literature. Begin to develop research questions or objectives based on theory.
• Fundamental research, also known as basic research or pure research does not usually generate findings that have immediate applications on a practical level. Fundamental research is driven by curiosity and the desire to expand knowledge in a specific research area.
The main objective of fundamental research is to produce knowledge and understanding in relation to natural phenomena.
• Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is also a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values some research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively.
• Empirical research is a type of research methodology that makes use of verifiable evidence in order to arrive at research outcomes. In other words, this type of research relies solely on evidence obtained through observation or scientific data collection methods.
Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion of past work in the field. Research is defined as careful consideration of a study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon
• Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher.
• The assignment of subjects to different groups is based on whichever variable is of interest to the researchers. For example, a researcher is interested in how weight influences self-esteem levels in adults. This is an ex post facto design because a pre-existing characteristic (weight) was used to form the groups.
. In ex post facto research the researcher takes the effect (or dependent variable) and examines the data retrospectively to establish causes, relationships or associations, and their meanings
Research refers to a systematic study of one’s chosen subject for arriving at both new and valid conclusions.
1. Participant observation
o The researcher interacts with people in everyday life while collecting information.
o It is a unique method for investigating the enormously rich, complex, conflictual, problematic, and diverse experiences, thoughts, feelings, and activities of human beings and the meanings of their existence.
o The use of this distinctive method emerged with the professionalization of anthropology and sociology where it gradually was formalized and later spread to a full range of human studies fields.
o Its practice nevertheless remains artful, requiring creative decision making about problems and questions to be studied, appropriate settings and situations for gathering information, the performance of membership roles, establishing and sustaining trusting relationships, ethics, values, and politics, as well as record-making, data analysis and interpretation, and reporting results.
2. Experimental research
o It is mainly used in science subjects such as physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, etc.
o The experiment requires two variables, one independent variable, and the other dependent variable.
o It is important that in experimental research the independent variable is manipulated and the effect of manipulation is observed on the dependent variable.
3. Descriptive method
o To study and obtain information concerning the current status of a given phenomenon.
o It determines the nature of a situation as it exists at the time of the study
o The aim is to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.
o It may involve testing a set of hypotheses in the area of one’s chosen subject of research.
4. Ethnographic method
o The process of studying and describing a culture through close observation and active participation.
o It provides an insider’s picture of a community under study.
o The researcher can go and live in a specific community where the research is going to conduct and study the culture and their educational practices.
According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
Statement I: Qualitative research is an umbrella term to refer to various research strategies that share certain characteristics. The data collected have been termed ‘soft’ i.e. rich in description.
• Qualitative research is a research strategy that usually emphasizes words rather than quantification in the collection and analysis of data. (Bryman 2008a: 366)
. Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes towards and strategies for conducting an inquiry that is aimed at discovering how human beings understand, experience, interpret, and produce the social world. (Sandelowski 2004: 893)
• Qualitative research focuses on the study of complex human and social problems in totality, unlike the scientific method of concentrating on the study of fragmented variables or situations or events
• Qualitative research places the main emphasis on the researcher who narrates and interprets phenomena in terms of meanings derived from people’s experiences, events, etc.
Hence, the human and subjective approach is highlighted.
• The studies are conducted in a natural setting i.e., to observe the events without making any manipulations or controls on variables studied. It involves a variety of data gathering techniques and approaches of qualitative nature viz., case study, interviews, dialogues, observations, personal experience, life story, visual data like photography, etc. These data are gathered from varieties of Qualitative Research sources. Therefore, the research data collected in qualitative research has been termed soft i.e. rich in description of people, places, conversation, etc.
Thus, the statement I is correct.
Statement II: Quantitative research is mainly hypothetico deductive and employs mostly statistical techniques for data analysis.
• Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques
• Quantitative research collects information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys, online polls, questionnaires, etc., the results of which can be depicted in the form of numerical.
• After careful understanding of these numbers to predict the future of a product or service and make changes accordingly.
• Quantitative research is mainly hypothetico deductive and employs mostly statistical techniques for data analysis.
• A hypothetico-deductive method is an approach to research that begins with a theory about how things work and derives testable hypotheses from it. It is a form of deductive reasoning in that it begins with general principles, assumptions, and ideas, and works from them to more particular statements about what the world actually looks like and how it works. The hypotheses are then tested by gathering and analyzing data and the theory is then either supported or refuted by the results.
Thus, statement II is correct.
Research is an organized, systematic, and scientific inquiry into a subject to discover facts, theories or to find answers to a problem. It involves several steps including identification of a problem, review of literature, formulation of hypothesis, research design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, etc. There are different types of researches, one of them is participatory research.
Four additional approaches to research have been described: action research, feminist research, and participatory and collaborative inquiries.
1. It is usually qualitative in nature.
2. Participatory research is based upon the principle of minimizing the gap between the researcher and the research participants and increased community involvement and participation to enhance the relevance of the research findings to their needs.
3. It is assumed that such involvement will increase the possibility of the community accepting the research findings and if need be, its willingness and involvement in solving the problems and issues that confront it.
4. You can undertake a quantitative or qualitative study in these inquiries but the main emphasis is on people’s engagement, collaboration, and participation in the research process.
5. In a way, these designs are based on the community development model where engagement of a community by way of consultation and participation in planning and execution of research tasks is imperative
6. In these designs, you are not merely a researcher but also a community organizer seeking the active participation of the community.
The experimental method
• The experimental method involves manipulating one variable to determine if changes in one variable cause changes in another variable. This method relies on controlled methods, random assignment, and the manipulation of variables to test a hypothesis.
• The experimental method is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables.
• Residuals are estimates of experimental error obtained by subtracting the observed response from the predicted response. The predicted response is calculated from the chosen model after all the unknown model parameters have been estimated from the experimental data.
• Residuals help to determine if a curve (shape) is appropriate for the data. A residual is a difference between what is plotted in your scatter plot at a specific point, and what the regression equation predicts should be plotted” at this specific point.
• A residual is a vertical distance between a data point and the regression line. Each data point has one residual. They are positive if they are above the regression line and negative if they are below the regression line. In other words, the residual is the error that isn’t explained by the regression line.
• Residual analysis is used to assess the appropriateness of a linear regression model by defining residuals and examining the residual plot graphs.
• A residual plot is typically used to find problems with regression. Some data sets are not good candidates for regression, including Heteroscedastic data (points at widely varying distances from the line). Data that is non-linearly associated.
Single group experiment
• The single group design is a design in which a group of subjects are administered treatment and then measured (or observed). No attempt is made to randomly assign subjects to the groups, nor does the design provide for any additional groups as comparisons.
• We define a single group study as a study that consists of only a single group of subjects included in the study design, in which all subjects received a single intervention and the outcomes are assessed over time (i.e., not a cross-sectional study). These studies may be prospective or retrospective cohort studies.
Parallel group experiment
• A parallel study is a type of clinical study where two groups of treatments, A and B, are given so that one group receives only A while another group receives only B. Other names for this type of study include “between patient” and “non-crossover”.
• A parallel-group design is an experimental study design in which each subject is randomized to one of two or more distinct treatment/intervention groups. Those who are assigned to the same treatment are referred to as a treatment group.
Rational group experiment
• A rational group can thus be defined as a group in which all elements are rational elements. For any element of infinite order, the element and its inverse must be conjugate
• Deconstruction is a methodology firstly developed by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida and originally applied to philosophical analysis. Deconstruction is a qualitative methodology that allows researchers and practitioners to analyse SAT in order to choose the most appropriate for the evaluation’s purpose.
• Deconstruction is a way of understanding how something was created, usually things like art, books, poems and other writing. Deconstruction is breaking something down into smaller parts. Deconstruction looks at the smaller parts that were used to create an object.
• Deconstruction is defined as a way of analyzing literature that assumes that text cannot have a fixed meaning. An example of deconstruction is reading a novel twice, 20 years apart, and seeing how it has a different meaning each time.
• Deconstruction denotes the pursuing of the meaning of a text to the point of exposing the supposed contradictions and internal oppositions upon which it is founded-supposedly showing that those foundations are irreducibly complex, unstable, or impossible.
• Deconstruction, form of philosophical and literary analysis, derived mainly from work begun in the 1960s by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, that questions the fundamental conceptual distinctions, or “oppositions,” in Western philosophy through a close examination of the language and logic of philosophical and literary texts.
• Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry.
In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to include oral literature, much of which has been transcribed.
• Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge”) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE
• There are four major branches of science, each branch is categorized in different type of subjects that covers different areas of studies such us chemistry, physics, math, astronomy etc. The four major branches of science are, Mathematics and logic, biological science, physical science and social science.
Applied Science is a discipline that is used to apply existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, for example: technology or inventions. In natural science, basic science (or pure science) is used to develop information to explain phenomena in the natural world.
• Applied science is the use of existing scientific knowledge to practical goals, like technology or inventions. Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science develop basic information to explain and perhaps predict phenomena in the natural world.
• Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original science of society”, established in the century.
• It is grounded in the assumption that individuals construct social reality in the form of meanings and interpretations, and that these constructions tend to be transitory and situational.
• Qualitative research typically involves qualitative data, i.e., data obtained through methods such as interviews, on-site observations, and focus groups that are in narrative rather than numerical form. Such data are analyzed by looking for themes and patterns.
• It involves reading, re-reading, and exploring the data.
• Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This method is not only about
“what people think but also “why” they think so.
Qualitative Research Designs
• Qualitative research methods are designed in a manner that helps reveal the behaviour and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic.
• The results of qualitative methods are more descriptive and the inferences can be drawn quite easily from the data that is obtained.
• There are different types of qualitative research methods like an in-depth interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, content analysis, case study research that are usually used
• Qualitative research designs aim at exploring experiences, culture, stories, ideologies, etc. to understand social and behavioural sciences.
Qualitative research focuses on understanding a research query as a humanistic or idealistic approach.
Features of Qualitative research
• Mainly for exploratory purposes and to generate hypotheses
• The usual purpose is to generate a range and variety of data.
• The methods of inquiry are informal and flexible.
• The researcher usually starts with only a broad indication of the information objectives of the project, but with a clear understanding of the overall purpose of the research.
• The researcher usually works from a list of the topics to be covered, but the course of each ‘interview will be influenced by the respondent.
• Probability sample techniques are used in data collection.
• Data gathering to take place with top-down systematic evidence.
• Data collection with bottom-up empirical evidence is considered critical in this research. The aim of bottom-up studies, in contrast, is rather to give an accurate empirical description and explanation of the interactions and problem-solving strategies of actors involved in policy delivery. Many of the bottom-up studies do not go beyond providing descriptive accounts of a large amount of discretion available to implementers.
• Based on small numbers of respondents who take part individually or in small groups.
• It cannot be known how true the findings are of the population from which the respondents are drawn.
• Data collection is usually handled by research professionals.
• Use of standardized research tools.
• A qualitative project cannot be repeated exactly, because every data collection event in a project is different.
• The findings can rarely be expressed in statistical form Analysis and conclusion rely heavily on the researcher’s perceptions and interpretation skills
• Scientific research is the systematic investigation of scientific theories and hypotheses.
• A hypothesis is a single assertion, a proposed explanation of something based on available knowledge, for something yet to be explained. One that is subject to further experimentation Depending on the purpose of research, scientific research projects can be grouped into three types: exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory.
The sequential operations followed in scientific research are as follows:
1. Co variation
• Covariation is a relationship between two quantitative variables such that as one variable tends to increase or decrease( in value, the corresponding values of the other variable tend to also increase or decrease).
• Covariance is a linear measure of “connectivity.” It is positive when the two variables you have at hand are positively connected.
• Thus, covariance is significant because it is a measure of “variable connectivity”, or even randomness, it is close to zero in random variables.
• In scientific research, the researcher must crucially analyze the relationship between the variables used.
2. Elimination of Spurious Relations
• Spurious is a term used to describe a statistical relationship between two variables that would, at first glance, appear to be causally related, but upon closer examination, only appear so by coincidence or due to the role of a third, intermediary variable. When this occurs, the two original variables are said to have a “spurious relationship.”
Thus researchers need to eliminate this kind of relationship among variables to avoid any discrepancy.
• Generalization is an essential component of the wider scientific process.
• In an ideal world, to test a hypothesis, you would sample an entire population. It is what allows researchers to take what they have learned on a small scale and relate it more broadly to the bigger picture.
. Generalizability is a measure of how useful the results of a study are for a broader group of people or situations. If the results of a study are broadly applicable to many different types of people or situations, the study is said to have good generalizability
• Theories are explanations of natural or social behavior, event, or phenomenon.
• More formally, a scientific theory is a system of constructs (concepts) and propositions (relationships between those constructs) that collectively presents a logical, systematic, and coherent explanation of a phenomenon of interest within some assumptions and boundary conditions (Bacharach 1989).
• Theories should explain why things happen, rather than just describe or predict. Note that it is possible to predict events or behaviors using a set of predictors, without necessarily explaining why such events are taking place.
• Formulating a theory is the final step in a scientific research process.
Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language defines research as “studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws.”
Newton gave three basic laws of motion. This research is categorized as Fundamental Research.
• Fundamental research – also referred to as pure or basic research, — studies phenomena to get a fuller understanding of it.
• This is basically to obtain knowledge of a natural phenomenon whose applications may or may not have any bearing on any application in the immediate future or even after a long time Generally, this type of research demands a very high order of intellectual caliber, intuition also plays an important role in this type of research.
• Those who are involved in basic research devote their efforts to the formulation or reformulation of theories and may not be concerned at all with their practical application
• The knowledge obtained thus expands the theoretical base of a subject.
Generally, basic research is conducted by intellectuals at academic institutions who are specially commissioned for this purpose.
1. Descriptive Research: Descriptive research is a type of research that describes a population, situation, or phenomenon that is being studied. It focuses on answering the how, what, when, and where questions If a research problem, rather than the why. This is mainly because it is important to have a proper understanding of what a research problem is about before investigating why it exists in the first place.
2. Sample Survey: The field of sample survey methods is concerned with effective ways of obtaining sample data. The three most common types of sample surveys are mail surveys, telephone surveys, and personal interview surveys. All of these involve the use of a questionnaire, for which a large body of knowledge exists concerning the phrasing, sequencing, and grouping of questions.
3. Applied Research: Applied research is to acquire knowledge on the practical application of the theoretical base already built up which is expected to solve a critical problem. Applied Research is usually conducted for industries or governments by universities or by specialized research laboratories or institutions. Applied Research is always for development purposes.