15 PYQ of Research Aptitude [Solved]

pyq of research aptitude

In this PYQ series, we have discussed 15 important Research Aptitude previous year questions (PYQ) as well as we have expanded all those PYQ in detail where we thought it can be explained well by example or by image, there we have solved PYQ well using the same things.

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The best meaning of Research is

  • ✓ Adoption of Scientific Method’ for creation and application of knowledge
  • Adoption of critical and constructive thinking for solution of problems
  • Arriving at generalisations based on observed data
  • Search for universal truths of life

Solution

Searching it, again and again, means Re-search. Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of the matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.

• Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is regarded as a systematic effort to gain new knowledge.

• The dictionary meaning of research is “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”

• Definition of Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last, carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

Hence, the best possible meaning of Research is adoption of Scientific Method for creation and application of knowledge.

Inappropriate application of ICT in research is an example of:

  • Technical lapse on the part of the researcher
  • Inadequate provision of ICT resources
  • Violation of research ethics
  • ✓ Absence of technical expertise of ICT resources

Solution

The solution is “Absence of technical expertise of ICT resources”

Key-Points

Information and communication technology – is an extensional term for information technology that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, and storage and manipulate information.

ICT tools are mainly used by researchers for their ability to ease the knowledge gathering process and to enhance resource development. The use of ICT is based on the individual’s logical assessment of how various applications increase his/her effectiveness and efficiency in work and provide ease in communication with peers.

ICT provides tools to search:

• Google Scholar: peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts, and articles from academicians, publishers, universities, and

other scholarly organizations.

• Google Books

• Microsoft academic: 120 publications, including scientific papers, conference,s and journals.

• World Wide Science: The global science gateway is operated by the office of scientific and technical information.

ICT helps to create questionnaire and survey:

Google forms, form tools, type form, Microsoft forms, Ninja forms, Hub spot’s free online form builder.

Generally, Applications of ICT help the researcher in the following research related tasks:

• Identify appropriate information sources

• Critically analyze information

• Research effectively

• Manage information

• Use the information to extend and mmunicate knowledge across the subject fields.

• Receive results in a common format

• Link to individual databases for more specialized searching

Important Point

Inappropriate application of ICT in research is due to the absence of technical expertise of ICT resources. It is not considered an unethical research practice.

Confusion Points

Technical lapse means an accidental or temporary decline or deviation from an expected or accepted condition or state; a temporary falling or slipping from a previous standard

In using the hypothetico-deductive research paradigm which of the following sequaneces is considered appropriate?

  • Hypothesis making, Hypothesis testing, Arriving at generalization and Conclusion
  • Establishing a research problem, Hypothesis making, Hypothesis testing, Arriving at generalization and Conclusion
  • Hypothesis making, Establishing a research problem Hypothesis testing, Arriving at generalization and Conclusion
  • Hypothesis testing, Hypothesis making, Finalizing the problem, Arriving at generalization and Conclusion

Solution

Hypothetico-deductive method of research:

• The hypothetico-deductive method was proposed by the Dutch physicist Christian Huygens.

• Karl Popper devised the Hypothetico-deductive model in 1934 as a scientific process

• It is a step-by-step, organized, and rigorous way to find the solution to a problem

• It consists of two parts, ‘Hypothetico’ – the hypothesis part arising from the source and the ‘Deductive’ – the test consequences

drawn from the hypothesis.

Key-Points

It constitutes the following seven stages:

1. Identify a broad problem area

2. Define the problem statement

3. Develop hypotheses

4. Determine measures

5. Data collection

6. Data analysis

7. Interpretation of data

Hypothetico – Deductive

Therefore, the appropriate sequence of hypothetico-deductive research paradigm is Establishing a research problem,

Hypothesis making, Hypothesis testing, Arriving at generalization, and Conclusion.

In which research design the independent variable is ‘selected’ rather than ‘manipulated?

  • Experimental research design
  • Historical research design
  • ✓ Ex post-facto research design
  • Descriptive survey research design

Solution

Research is to search for facts in any branch of knowledge.

  • An attitude of inquiry
  • An attempt to solicit facts
  • A state of mind
  • A systematic and scholarly application of the scientific method.

Key-Points

Research is of many types and lets us explain the ones given in the question:

Experimental Research:

 Experimental research designs are the primary approach used to investigate causal(causeleffect) relationships and to study

the relationship between one variable and another.

• Independent variable: This is the variable that will be manipulated, the “cause” or treatment variable. This variable may be an activity or characteristics that the researcher believes will make a difference.

• Dependent variable: This variable is the effect or outcome of manipulating the independent variable. The only constraint is that the outcome must be measurable.

• Experimental group: The group that receives the treatment being investigated

• Control group: The group that remains the same in order to have something to compare the experimental group against.

Historical Research design:

• analytical research design, a style of qualitative inquiry, draws from the disciplines of philosophy (the meaning of concepts),history, and biography.

  • It is non-interactive document research.

• It describes and interprets the past or recent past from selected sources.

• It shares commonalities of qualitative research. Documents preserved in collections, oral testimonies, etc. are useful in this research type.

Descriptive research design:

• It is a nonexperimental quantitative research design. Its major purpose description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.

• It includes surveys and fact findings inquiries of different kinds.

• The researcher has no control over the variables, he can only report what has happened or what is happening.

• Descriptive research steps: Statement of the problem, identification of information, selection of development of data-gathering instruments, identification of target population and sample, design of information collection procedure, collection of information, analysis of information, generalization, and/or predictions.

Ex-post Facto research:

• Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher.

• The researcher predicts the possible causes behind an effect on the dependent variable that has already occurred due to the independent variable. For example, if a child is delinquent (that is, one who indulges in criminal activities), then in order to find the basic reason behind such delinquency, the researcher would try to find out the various events that have occurred and the many possibilities that could have contributed to the concerned delinquent behavior.

  • The expected possibilities maybe a lack of discipline at school/ family history/ peer effect/neighborhood or socialization. It is an interesting point to note that, the researcher predicts a cause on the basis of a controlled effect (since no variation can be done on the effect which has already taken place on the basis of the independent variable or the cause).

• Thus, ex-post-facto research can be defined as an empirically based investigation that does not involve the researchers’ direct control over the independent variables because they have already led to effects that can no more be manipulated.

Therefore, In the ex-post-facto research design, the independent variable is ‘selected’ rather than ‘manipulated’.

Arrange the following steps of research in correct sequence :

1. Identification of research problem

2. Listing of research objectives

3. Collection of data

4. Methodology

5. Data analysis

6. Results and discussion

1-2-3-4-5-6

✓ 1-2-4-3-5-6

2-1-3-4-5-6

2-1-4-3-5-6

Solution

Research is a systematic study carried out using scientific methods to develop new theories or alter existing theories. Research refers to ‘go about seeking’. The prime objectives of the research are to discover new facts, update/alter existing knowledge, provide solutions to problems.

Research involves the following steps:

1. Identification Of The Research Problem:

• The first and foremost task in the entire process of scientific research is to identify a research problem.

• A well-identified problem will lead the researcher to accomplish all-important phases of the research process, starting from setting objectives to the selection of the research methodology.

• It is essential to ensure that the research problem is concrete and explicit.

2. Stating Research Objectives And Hypothesis:

• After discovering and defining the research problem, researchers should make a formal statement of the problem leading to research objectives.

• A hypothesis is an unproven statement or proposition that can be refuted or supported by empirical data.

• Hypothetical statements assert a possible answer to a research question.

• The hypothesis should be free from any biases.

• This is because, the researcher determines the scope, depth, and overall direction of the research.

3. Methodology:

• The next step is to prepare a Methodology which is also called Research Design.

• Till now, we have defined our problem, objectives, and hypothesis.

• Now, to test our hypothesis, we need to determine the kind of data we require, the sample size needed, techniques to analyze data, etc.

• The solution to these questions forms our Research Design.

4. Collection And Analysis of Data:

• Now that we know the kind of data we require, the next step is the Collection of Data.

• Data can be collected through primary or secondary sources.

• Primary Data is first-hand data that is collected by the researcher through observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc.

• Secondary Data is data collected from magazines, newspapers, books, online sources, etc.

• After collecting data it is important to process it. After processing, Data becomes Information.

• Data can be analyzed through various software programs, excel sheets, graphical charts, etc.

• Data analysis usually involves reducing accumulated data to a manageable size, developing summaries, searching for patterns, and applying statistical techniques for understanding and interpreting the findings in the light of the research questions.

5. Statement Of Results And Discussion:

• This is the final step of research. On the basis of data analysis, some generalizations may arise.

• The generalization made in this step should not be based on personal opinion rather, it should flow from the analysis based on data.

• The validity of the research outcome depends on how accurately the findings of data have been incorporated in the conclusion.

Research Process

Hence, the correct sequence of conducting research are identification of research problem, Listing of research objectives,

Methodology, Collection of data, Data analysis, and Results and discussion.

Which of the following represents the distinctive feature of qualitative research?

  • ✓ Perspective based inductive and meaning giving
  • Hypothesis based, deductive and testing
  • Deductive cum inductive based approach and generalization
  • Deductive inquiry with focus and hypotheses being tested

Solution

Research is a systematic inquiry towards understanding a complex social phenomenon or a process. Based on the research problem, the selection of research methods by the researcher may vary. There are two types of research on the basis of a process i.e Quantitative research and Qualitative research.

Qualitative research:

• The objective is to explore a phenomenon to gain understanding by diving deeper into the problem.

• The quality of data rather than quantity is given importance.

• Used qualitative methods of data collection such as interviews, focus groups, observation, etc.

• It is spiral in nature.

• The researcher starts with observation and ends with a theoretical position based on the facts, data, and his/her perception.

• It moves from specific to theory. Therefore, it is inductive in nature.

• A subject is studied in depth.

• The conclusions are descriptive rather than predictive.

• Believes in the interpretivism paradigm and disregards the positivist assumptions and statistical data analysis.

• The behavioral aspect of people is studied. (thoughts, beliefs, attitude, values, etc)

Which of the following are non-probability sampling methods?

(A) Cluster sampling

(B) Judgemental sampling

(C) Systematic sampling

(D) Snowball sampling

(E) Quota sampling

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A), (B) and (C) only

(B) (D) and (E) only

(B), (C) and (D) only

(C), (D) and (E) only

Solution

Although every researcher wants to be able to generalize the research findings to the wider population, such a study will require much more time, money and effort. For this reason, we select a sample i.e. a smaller representation of the larger whole (population), so that we can generalize our findings from the sample for the population.

Sampling: The concept of sampling involves selecting a portion (sample) from a bigger group (the sampling population). There are three

methods of sampling in research:

1. Random/Probability Sampling

2. Non-random/Non-probability Sampling

3. ‘Mixed’ Sampling

Key-Points

Types of Non-Random/Non-Probability Sampling Designs: These designs do not operate on the principle of randomization rather these are used when the number of elements in the population is either unknown or cannot be individually identified.

1. Accidental Sampling: It is also based upon convenience in accessing the sampling population. People who are unwilling to provide data are simply ignored and the researcher moves to the next person until he/she meets somebody who is willing to be a participant. You stop collecting data when you reach the required number of respondents you decided to have in your sample.

2. Judgment/Purposive Sampling: The primary consideration in purposive sampling is the researcher’s judgment as to who can provide the best information to achieve the objectives of your study. The researcher will only go to those people who in his opinion is likely to have the required information and will be willing to share it.

3. Snowball Sampling: It is also called a network or chain referral sampling. To start with, the researcher identifies a small number of respondents having a set of characteristics of interest to the researcher. After collecting the required data from those respondents, the same respondents are asked to identify others having the same characteristics set. E.g., collecting data from drug addicts, rape victims, etc.

4. Quota Sampling: The researcher is guided by some visible characteristic, such as gender or race, of the study population that is of interest to him. The sample is selected from a location that is convenient and easily accessible to the researcher and whenever a person with this visible relevant characteristic is seen that person is asked to participate in the study.

5. Dimensional Sampling: It is an extension of quota sampling where the researcher takes into account several characteristics such as gender, residence, education, etc. and ensures that there is at least one individual in the study representing each of the chosen characteristics.

Therefore, option 2 is the correct answer.

Additional Information

Random/Probability Sampling: In this type, each element in the population has an equal and independent chance of selection in the sample.

1. Simple Random Sampling: It is the most popular of the probability sampling methods. The idea of randomization implies that sample selection is independent of human judgment.

2. Systematic sampling is a statistical method that researchers use to zero down on the desired population they want to research. Researchers calculate the sampling interval by dividing the entire population size by the desired sample size.

3. Cluster Sampling: It is based on the ability of the researcher to divide the sampling population into groups, called clusters and then to select elements within each cluster, using the simple random sampling technique. It is appropriate when the population is large.

A university teacher wants to study the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and achievement motivation of graduates enrolled for computer science. Which research method will be appropriate to use in this context?

  • Experimental research method
  • ✓ Ex-post facto research method
  • Descriptive research method
  • Participant observation based method

Solution

Research is a systematic inquiry towards understanding a complex social phenomenon or a process. Based on the research problem, the selection of research methods by the researcher may vary.

A university teacher wants to study the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and achievement motivation of graduates enrolled in computer science. The ex-post facto research method will be appropriate to be used in this context.

• Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher.

• The researcher tries to understand the causal effects behind a phenomenon.

• The research basically focuses on how and what reasons have led that phenomena to occur.

  • With the help of ex-post-facto research, the researcher tries to analyze the cause and effect phenomena of an event, action, or behaviour.
  • In the above example, the university teacher will be able to find a link between socioeconomic status and achievement motivation of graduates only after analyzing student’s attitudes after they have enrolled in computer science.

Thus, option 2 is the correct answer.

Additional Information

Experimental Research Method:

• Experimental research is research conducted with a scientific approach using two sets of variables.

• The first set acts as a constant, which you use to measure the differences of the second set.

• Quantitative research methods, for example, are experimental.

Descriptive Research Method:

• Descriptive research is defined as a research method that describes the characteristics of the population or phenomenon studied.

This methodology focuses more on the “what” of the research subject than the “why” of the research subject.

Participant Observation Based Method:

• The participant observation method, also known as ethnographic research, is when a sociologist actually becomes a part of the group they are studying in order to collect data and understand a social phenomenon or problem.

  • During participant observation, the researcher works to play two separate roles at the same time: subjective participant and objective observer.

Which of the following features best describe an independent variable in research?

A. It is the cause in the cause-effect relationship.

B. It is the effect in the cause-effect relationship.

C. It is the condition or characteristic which is manipulated in an experimental study.

D. It is the variable which is placed under control.

E. It is a kind of response variable.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

A and B only

B and C only

✓ A and C only

D and E only

Solution

Variables:

• Variables are defined as the properties or kinds of characteristics of certain events or objects.

• In research, variables are any characteristics that can take on different values, such as height, age, species, or exam score.

• In scientific research, we often want to study the effect of one variable on another one.

. For example, you might want to test whether students who spend more time studying get better exam scores. The variables in a study of a cause-and-effect relationship are called the independent and dependent variables.

Key-Points

Independent Variable:

• Independent variables are variables that are manipulated or are changed by researchers and whose effects are measured and compared.

• The other name for independent variables is Predictor(s).

• The independent variables are called as such because independent variables predict or forecast the values of the dependent variable in the model.

• The independent variable is the cause. Its value is independent of other variables in your study.

• Example: How long you sleep (independent variable) affects your test score (dependent variable).

Thus, option 3 is the correct answer.

Additional Information

Dependent Variable:

• The dependent variables refer to that type of variable that measures the effect of the independent variable(s) on the test units.

. We can also say that the dependent variables are the types of variables that are completely dependent on the independent variable(s).

• The other name for the dependent variable is the predicted variable(s) or Response variable(s).

• The dependent variables are named as such because they are the values that are predicted or assumed by the predictor / independent variables.

The dependent variable is the effect. Its value depends on changes in the independent variable.

Which of the following research forms, aims primarily at putting to use the theoretical advances with an eye on exploring the potential for generalizibility?

  • Fundamental research
  • Evaluative research
  • Action research
  • Applied research

Solution

Applied research aims primarily at putting to use the theoretical advances with an eye on exploring the potential for generalizability

Key-Points

1. Applied research is a type of research design that seeks to solve a specific problem or provide innovative solutions to issues affecting an individual, group or society.

2. It is often referred to as a scientific method of inquiry or contractual research because it involves the practical application of scientific methods to everyday problems.

3. When conducting applied research, the researcher takes extra care to identify a problem, develop a research hypothesis, and go ahead to test these hypotheses via an experiment.

4. In many cases, this research approach employs empirical methods in order to solve practical problems.

5. Applied research is sometimes considered to be a non-systematic inquiry because of its direct approach to seeking a solution to a problem.

6. It is typically a follow-up research design that further investigates the findings of pure or basic research in order to validate these findings and apply them to create innovative solutions.

Additional Information

1. Fundamental research:

• Fundamental research, also known as basic research or pure research does not usually generate findings that have immediate applications in a practical level.

• Fundamental research is driven by curiosity and the desire to expand knowledge in a specific research area.

2. Evaluative research:

• Evaluation research, also known as program evaluation, refers to research purpose instead of a specific method.

• Evaluation research is the systematic assessment of the worth or merit of time, money, effort and resources spent in order to achieve a goal.

3. Action research:

• Action research refers to a wide variety of evaluative, investigative, and analytical research methods designed to diagnose problems or weaknesses—whether organizational, academic, or instructional—and help educators develop practical solutions to address them quickly and efficiently.

In which of the following there is considerable scope for violation of research ethics?

(A) Problem formulation

(B) Data interpretation

(C) Hypothesis making

(D) Reporting of research results

(E) Using research tools prepared by others

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A), (B) and (C) only

(B). (C) and (D) only

✓ (B), (D) and (E) only

(C), (D) and (E) only

Solution

Ethics are broadly the set of rules, written and unwritten, that govern our expectations of our own and others’ behavior. Research ethics are the set of ethics that govern how scientific and other research is performed at research institutions such as universities, and how it is disseminated

Key-Points

There is considerable scope for violation of research ethics in process of data interpretation, reporting research results, and using research tools prepared by others.

1. Data interpretation:

• Data Interpretation should be done in an honest and integral manner without any biased manipulation of data.

• This means that you need to report your research honestly and that this applies to your methods, your data, your results, and whether you have previously published any of it.

• One should not make up any data, including extrapolating unreasonably from some of your results, or do anything which could be construed as trying to mislead anyone.

• It is better to undersell than over-exaggerate your findings. You should aim to avoid bias in any aspect of your research, including design, data analysis, interpretation, and peer review.

2. Reporting of research results:

The results of the research that are to be reported and published should be responsible and legal.

• You should publish to advance to the state of research and knowledge, and not just to advance your career.

• This means, in essence, that you should not publish anything that is not new, or that duplicates someone else’s work.

• You should always be aware of laws and regulations that govern your work and be sure that you conform to them.

3. Using research tools prepared by others:

• Research tools prepared by others should not be used without their permission.

• You should never plagiarise, or copy, other people’s work and try to pass it off as your own.

• You should always ask for permission before using other people’s tools or methods, unpublished data, or results. Not doing so is plagiarism.

Thus, option 3 is the correct answer.

In establishing a research problem for a Ph.D. level course, in the initial stage which of the following stages are crucial?

a) Hypothesis making

b) Locating a problem area from a field through a survey of related literature

c) Defining the population of research and its characteristics

d) Selecting a pointed issue called a problem by a process of logical analysis

e) Defining and delimiting the problem

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

b, d and e only

b, c and d only

a, b and c only

✓ c, d and e only

Solution

The most important factor for a Ph.D. level course is the selection of a research problem is the- Defining the population of research and its characteristics, Selecting a pointed issue called a problem by a process of logical analysis and Defining and delimiting the problem.

“Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods.”

Key-Points

• A research problem is a question that a research project sets out to answer.

• Choosing a research problem is an essential element of both quantitative and qualitative research.

• A research problem is a specific issue, difficulty, contradiction, or gap in knowledge that you will aim to address in your research.

• The type of research problem you choose depends on your broad topic of interest and the type of research you want to do.

• The problem also needs to have relevance in terms of importance, and be measurable.

Steps to establishing a research problem for a PhD level course:

• Some consideration before choosing the problem is as follows,

• It should be of interest to the researcher to sustain the desired motivation level

• The selected problem should be manageable from every aspect

• Clarity of the concept

• Presence of adequate skill to perform the work

• Should have relevance to add in the existing knowledge

• Availability of required data

• The anticipation of the ethical issues and their remedies

There are a few consecutive stages to formulate a research problem. These are as follows-

• Identify the area of interest

• Divide the area of interest into some sub-areas

• Choose an area to do the research/ focusing on an area

• Prepare a list of questions

• Put one / two questions to set objectives

• Narrows the research problem

Characteristics of a research problem:

• Covers the essential needs or issues

• The problem is stated logically and clearly

• The research is based on actual facts and evidence (non-hypothetical)

• The research problem generates and encourages research questions

• Sufficient data can be obtained

• The problem has an unsatisfactory answer or is a new problem

A college teacher intends to study the problems of latecomers in the classroom. Which type of sampling method will be appropriate in this context?

  • Stratified sampling
  • Random sampling
  • Purposive sampling
  • Cluster sampling

Solution

Sampling:

• Sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate

characteristics of the whole population. Statisticians attempt for the samples to represent the population in question.

Key-Points

There are two types of sampling

Important Point

PurposivelJudgment Sampling:

• The primary consideration in purposive sampling is the researcher’s judgment as to who can provide the best information to achieve the objectives of your study. The researcher will only go to those people who in his opinion is likely to have the required information and will be willing to share it.

• Theoretical saturation is a useful principle for deciding on sample size. It helps in deciding when the data collection can stop.

There is considerable disagreement about what is an acceptable minimum sample size.

  • The main goal of purposive sampling is to focus on particular characteristics of a population that are of interest, which will best enable you to answer your research questions.

• In contrast to Random Sampling, the purposive character of case selection in qualitative research requires researchers reflecting systematically on which cases to select for their research. In other words, we can say that Purposive Sampling is the fundamental principle for selecting cases and individuals in qualitative research.

If a college teacher intends to study the problems of latecomers in the classroom researcher is an example of Purposive Sampling.

The —————— of a research article is placed near its beginning.

  • summary
  • ✓ abstract
  • synopsis
  • preface

Solution

Abstract (summary):

1. An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper’s purpose.

2. When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent application.

3. Abstracting and indexing services for various academic disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject.

Therefore, the Abstract of a research article is placed near its beginning.

Confusion Points

1. The terms précis or synopsis are used in some publications to refer to the same thing that other publications might call an “abstract”.

2. In management reports, an executive summary usually contains more information (and often more sensitive information) than the abstract does.

Additional Information

A preface or proem is an introduction to a book or other literary work written by the work’s author. An introductory essay written by a different person is a foreword and precedes an author’s preface.

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